Supervision of animal health is based on Veterinary Organisation Act that establishes the bases of organisation of veterinary activity. Veterinary activity is a system of measures, applied for protection of animal and human health and for guarantee of animal welfare, including activities in the field of animal health, animal product hygiene and animal protection.
In the field of animal health Infectious Animal Disease Control Act is very important, that contains both common (for example commitment to identify and register animals) and concrete (for example directions for activities to be taken during epidemic) measures of precaution and control of infectious animal diseases. In prevention, suspicion or presence of animal epidemic there is need for compact co-operation with Veterinary and Food Laboratory, performing necessary laboratory examination.
In case of suspicion or presence of infectious animal disease activity is based on the infectious animal disease control rules, established by the Ministry of Agriculture. According to infectious animal disease control rules the spreading of infectious animal disease has to be blocked and the source of infection has to be eliminated. The infectious animal disease control rules are obligatory for all animal-breeders, handlers of animal products, persons in the spreading area of infectious animal diseases, supervising officials, authorized veterinarians, licensed veterinarians and veterinary laboratories and other persons, connected with the infectious animal disease control due to of their jobs.
The control and compensation of all especially dangerous and part of dangerous infectious animal diseases are financed through the state budget, as established by the regulation of Government No 260 of 1 August 2000 and regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture No 69 of 23 November 2000.
Veterinary and Food Board collaborates with other countries, administrations, ministries and organisations (OIE, the European Council, WHO etc.) regarding animal health issues.
According to The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Republic of Estonia is free from rabies, foot and mouth disease, peste des petits ruminants, rinderpest and with negligible bovine spongiform encephalopathy risk.
According to European Commission Decision 2010/695/EU Estonia is officially tuberculosis-free and officially brucellosis-free (Brucella melitensis) and according to European Commission Decision 2014/441/EU Estonia is officially enzootic-bovine-leukosis-free.